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¡Echemos un vistazo a algunos de los verbos irregulares más frecuentes en inglés y sus patrones!

¿Alguna vez te has sentido que te abruman los verbos irregulares en inglés? ¡No te preocupes más! En este artículo, lo tenemos cubierto con algunos consejos útiles para dominar esos verbos complicados y conjugarlos como pro.

Sabemos que los verbos irregulares pueden ser un verdadero desafío, pero ¡no te rindas! En lugar de intentar aprenderlos uno por uno, te sugerimos que busques patrones en su conjugación. Aunque no todos siguen reglas específicas, muchos comparten similitudes que pueden facilitar tu proceso de aprendizaje.

Imagina agrupar estos verbos por sus similitudes. ¡Eso hará que todo sea mucho más manejable! Con más de 200 verbos irregulares, tratar de memorizarlos individualmente puede ser una tarea abrumadora. Pero con este enfoque, seguro estarás en el camino correcto para dominarlos.

¿Todo listo para empezar? A continuación, te presentamos algunas listas con los verbos irregulares más comunes que te ayudarán a familiarizarte con ellos y a conjugarlos con confianza. ¡Identifica los patrones y empieza a dominarlos YA!

PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
CutCutCutCortar
CostCostCostCostar
HitHitHitGolpear
HurtHurtHurtHerir
LetLetLetDejar
PutPutPutPoner
ReadReadReadLeer
SetSetSetFijar
SplitSplitSplitSeparar
ShutShutShutCerrar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
BuildBuiltBuiltConstruir
LendLentLentPrestar
SendSentSentMandar
SpendSpentSpentGastar
BendBentBentDoblar
BlendBlentBlentMezclar
BuildBuiltBuiltConstruir
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
DrinkDrankDrunkBeber
RingRangRungTimbrar
SingSangSungCantar
SwimSwamSwumNadar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
BreakBrokeBrokenRomper
ChooseChoseChosenElegir
FreezeFrozeFrozenCongelar
SpeakSpokeSpokenHablar
StealStoleStolenRobar
TakeTookTakenTomar
WakeWokeWokenDespertar
WriteWroteWrittenEscribir
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
BleedBledBledSangrar
BreedBredBredCriar
FeedFedFedAlimentar
MeetMetMetEncontrarse
SpeedSpedSpedAcelerar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
FeelFeltFeltSentir
KeepKeptKeptGuardar
KneelKneltKneltArrodillarse
SleepSleptSleptDormir
SweepSweptSweptBarrer
WeepWeptWeptLlorar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
FindFoundFoundEncontrar
GrindGroundGroundMoler
BindBoundBoundAtar
WindWoundWoundEnrollar
RewindRewoundRewoundRebobinar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
HangHungHungColgar
StingStungStungPicar
ClingClungClungAferrarse
SwingSwungSwungBalancearse
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
LayLaidLaidPoner
SaySaidSaidDecir
PayPaidPaidPagar
PresentePasado simplePasado simpleEspañol
BuyBoughtBoughtComprar
BringBroughtBroughtTraer
CatchCaughtCaughtAtrapar
FightFoughtFoughtLuchar
ThinkThoughtThoughtPensar
TeachTaughtTaughtEnseñar
SeekSoughtSoughtBuscar
PresentePasado simpleParticipioEspañol
EatAteEatenComer
FallFellFallenCaer
BiteBitBitten Morder
HideHidHiddenEsconder
ShakeShookShakenAgitar

¡Obviamente hay muchos más verbos esperándote más allá de estas listas! Pero aquí te hemos proporcionado los patrones clave para los verbos irregulares en inglés, lo que hará que los identifiques más fácilmente y los memorices de una manera mucho más entretenida.

La clave está en la práctica. Conjugar verbos irregulares en inglés es completamente posible. ¿Cómo lograrlo? Te recomendamos que cada día practiques usando dos o tres verbos en una oración. De esta forma, podrás poner en acción lo que has aprendido. ¡No te olvides de jugar con diferentes tiempos verbales y de agregar nuevo vocabulario a tu repertorio cada vez que practiques!

¡Diviértete mientras aprendes y no olvides seguirnos en todas nuestras redes para aprender con La Caja! With The Box!

PASSIVE VOICE: ¿Cómo se estructura y para qué la usamos?

La voz pasiva es una construcción gramatical que se utiliza en inglés para poner un objeto como sujeto de la oración a quien se le realiza una acción. Es una de las dos voces (activa y pasiva) que se usan en inglés. La voz pasiva es un tema gramatical de nivel intermedio y avanzado respecto al Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER).

Ya sabemos que la voz pasiva (PASSIVE VOICE) suele ser un dolor de cabeza, aunque realmente no es tan complicado estructurarla. Léete toda esta nota para que veas lo sencillo que puede llegar a ser. Pay attention!

HABLEMOS DE VOZ ACTIVA:

Para entrar en materia es necesario hablar y comprender qué es la voz activa; esta es la forma en que normalmente hablamos y escribimos. En la voz activa, el sujeto realiza la acción. Para formarla, se deben usar los siguientes elementos:

Sujeto + Verbo + Complemento

  • S   V  C (objeto)
  • He bakes a cake.

Como podrás notar, el objetivo de la oración es mostrar que un sujeto (HE) realiza una acción (BAKES) en un objeto (CAKE). Si el sujeto es una persona o un animal, entonces puede realizar acciones con casi todos los verbos que existen.

Otros ejemplos de esta estructura son:

  • She eats chocolate.
  • They throw parties.
  • We watch films.

¿Y ENTONCES CUÁNDO USAMOS LA VOZ PASIVA?

La voz pasiva se utiliza cuando el sujeto de la oración es un objeto o una cosa sobre la cual se actúa. Por ejemplo, un pastel (cake). Aunque un pastel (si lo utilizamos como sujeto) puede ser caro, tener buen sabor o muchos ingredientes, hay un límite a las oraciones que podemos hacer con él como sujeto, ya que sigue siendo un objeto que no puede realizar acciones por sí mismo. Es ahí donde entra en juego la voz pasiva. Tal vez dirás que suena muy enredado, pero no lo es tanto, solo presta atención. Tomemos el ejemplo del pastel.

  • S   V  C (objeto)
  • He bakes a cake.

Para construir la estructura de passive voice, tomamos el objeto de la oración (a pizza) y lo llevamos al lugar del sujeto.

  • S
  • a cake

Después tenemos que utilizar el verbo de la oración en pasado participio (siempre en pasado participio) y lo vamos a conectar con el verbo to be, a veces podemos usar get también. 

  • S   V 
  • A cake is baked.

Y para terminar, usamos el sujeto de nuestra oración original en voz activa para demostrar quién efectuó la acción. Ahora vamos a denominarlo agente.

  • S   V  AGENT
  • A cake is baked by HIM.

De esta forma, con a cake como sujeto aumentamos dramáticamente el número de acciones que le podemos realizar a este objeto. Un pastel puede ser preparado, amasado, cocinado, horneado, comprado, cortado, ordenado, pedido, empacado, recogido, pagado, disfrutado, compartido, masticado, comido… ¡uff! ¡Un sinfín de cosas! ¿Te das cuenta?

Y así va a pasar cada vez que los objetos sean puestos como sujetos de la voz pasiva. Al ser sujetos, las acciones se van a realizar a ellos, pero no serán hechas por ellos.

Algunos detalles que NUNCA debes olvidar al construir oraciones con voz pasiva:

  • Nuestro verbo siempre irá en pasado participio y el tiempo de la oración recaerá directamente sobre el verbo que utilizamos para conectar, el cual suele ser el verbo TO BE; es en este en donde vas a expresar si la oración está en presente, pasado, futuro, etc.
  • El sujeto, que ahora llamamos AGENTE, será incluido solo si se considera útil para la oración o no hay contexto previo, para lo cual usaremos BY, aunque si hay un contexto previo, si es una generalización, es obvio, desconocido o es irrelevante para la idea, podemos omitirlo.
  • S   V  AGENT
  • A house was bought by MY FAMILY.
  • Two apples will be eaten by THE GIRLS.
  • A dog has been adopted by ME.
  • Three criminals were arrested (by THE POLICE). El agente es irrelevante porque es una generalidad, así que no hace falta.
  • No todas las oraciones activas pueden ser transformadas a passive voice o voz pasiva. Especialmente cuando no existe un objeto en la oración.
  • S   V  COMPLEMENT (el complemento no es objeto del verbo)
  • She drives in the highway. In the highway is driven by her.

Si te das cuenta, aunque estructuralmente puede convertirse en voz pasiva, el complemento in the highway no es un objeto en el cual recaiga la acción del verbo, sino el lugar donde la acción se llevó a cabo, por lo cual no podemos considerarlo el sujeto de la oración.

Elegant woman driver looking at backseat, smiling happy

Revisa este formulario con las diferentes opciones que tenemos en cuanto a los tiempos. ¡Recuerda estos patrones y apréndelos para que domines la voz pasiva súperpro!

TENSESACTIVE VOICEPASSIVE VOICE
Subject+Verb+Complement (object)Subject+Verb to be+Verb in past participle+Agent
Present SimpleHe bakes a cake.A cake is baked by him.
Presente ContinuousHe is baking a cake.A cake is being baked by him.
Past SimpleHe baked a cake.A cake was baked by him.
Past ContinuousHe was baking a cake.A cake was being baked by him.
Present PerfectHe has baked a cake.A cake has been baked by him.
Past PerfectHe had baked a cake.A cake had been baked by him.
Future Simple (will)He will bake a cake.A cake will be baked by him.
Future w/going toHe is going to bake a cake.A cake is going to be baked by him.
Modal Verbs (can, could, shall,
should, would, may, must, might)
He can bake a cake.A cake can be baked by him.
Perfect Modal VerbsHe should have baked a cake.A cake should have been baked by him.

¡Revisa más del tema con Teacher Gilster si aún tienes dudas!

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Bueno, si ya repasaste y entendiste ¡Intenta este ejercicio ahora y practica!

Si batallas con el verbo TO BE… ¡Aprende esto para dominarlo!

El verbo to be es uno de los verbos principales en inglés y se puede encontrar en casi cualquier texto y escuchar en cualquier momento en cualquiera de sus conjugaciones y significados. Por lo tanto, es muy importante usarlo correctamente, así que déjanos ayudarte con eso.

Primero debemos saber qué significa: El verbo to be es un verbo más multiusos en el inglés, su significado puede depender del contexto en el que se encuentre. Sin embargo, aquí te dejamos sus significados más importantes:

  1. Ser: He is so nice! = ¡Él es muy agradable!
  1. Estar: It is freezing these days, right? = Está helando estos días, ¿no?
  1. Haber (there + to be): Is there any fruit to eat? = ¿Hay alguna fruta para comer?

Bueno, ya te hablamos de sus significados, pero ¿cuáles son los usos principales del verbo to be? Además de conocer lo que significa es muy importante saber cómo utilizarlo, así que aquí te vamos a dejar sus usos, ya que puede usarse como verbo y como auxiliar. Hablemos de ello entonces:

Como verbo nos sirve para mencionar una acción o estado del sujeto en cualquier tiempo.

He is Mexican = Él es mexicano. 

I was an assistant to the director = Yo era asistente de la directora.

Como auxiliar se usa acompañado de otros verbos para dar a entender que las acciones o estados se están ejecutando en el momento. Esta conjugación lleva una terminación que seguro conoces bien: –ing.

They are practicing English at the moment = Ellos están practicando inglés en este momento.

Conjugación del verbo to be

A continuación, encontrarás las conjugaciones de los siguientes tiempos verbales: presente, pasado simple, futuro simple, presente perfecto, pasado perfecto, futuro perfecto, condicional y condicional perfecto. Además de sus formas afirmativas, negativas y de pregunta.

PRESENT

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I amI am notAm I?
You areYou are notAre you?
He / She / It isHe / She / It is notIs He / She / It?
We areWe are notAre we?
You areYou are notAre you?
They areThey are notAre they?

E.g.

La Rosalía is writing a song about Rauw. = La Rosalía está está escribiendo una canción de Rauw.

We are really happy to be here! = Estamos muy felices de estar aquí.

PAST SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I wasI was notWas I?
You wereWere are notWere you?
He / She / It wasHe / She / It was notWas He / She / It?
We wereWe were notWere we?
You wereYou were notWere you?
They wereThey were notWere they?

E.g.

Barbenheimer was a mass success. = Barbenheimer fue un éxito masivo.

I was not invited to the party. = No fui invitado a la fiesta.

FUTURE SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I will beI will not beWill I be?
You will beWe will not beWill you be?
He / She / It will beHe / She / It will not beWill He / She / It be?
We will beWe will not beWill we be?
You wereYou will not beWill you be?
They wereThey will not beWill they be?

E.g.

Taylor Swift’s gigs will be amazing! = Los conciertos de Taylor Swift serán sorprendentes!

She will not be my girlfriend anymore. = Ella ya no será más mi novia.

PRESENT PERFECT

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I have beenI have not beenHave I been?
You have beenWe have not beenHave you been?
He / She / It has beenHe / She / It has not beenHave He / She / It been?
We have beenWe have not beenHave we been?
You have beenYou have not beenHave you been?
They have beenThey have not beenHave they been?

E.g.

She has been too busy these days. = Ella ha estado muy ocupada estos días.

Everybody has been so nice to me. = Todo mundo ha sido muy agradable conmigo.

PAST PERFECT

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I had beenI had not beenHad I been?
You had beenWe had not beenHad you been?
He / She / It had beenHe / She / It had not beenHad He / She / It been?
We had beenWe had not beenHad we been?
You had beenYou had not beenHad you been?
They had beenThey had not beenHad they been?

E.g.

I had been waiting for this all my life. = Había estado esperando esto toda mi vida.

JLo and Ben Affleck had been couple before, hadn’t they? = JLo y Ben Affleck ya habían sido pareja antes, ¿o no?

FUTURE PERFECT

AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEQUESTION
I will have beenI will not have beenWill I have been?
You will have beenWe will not have beenWill you have been?
He / She / It will have beenHe / She / It will not have beenWill He / She / It have been?
We will have beenWe will not have beenWill we have been?
You will have beenYou will not have beenWill you have been?
They will have beenThey will not have beenWill they have been?

E.g.

By this time tomorrow I will have been appointed the new chief. = Mañana a estas horas ya habré sido nombrado el nuevo jefe.

By 7 o’clock the project will not have been completed. = Para las 7 no habrá sido terminado el proyecto.

6 Common mistakes in English that you SHOULD AVOID!

Let me guess; you’re here because probably you are not a native English speaker and you are learning English… and of course you want to check whether you have been making these mistakes too. Well, I got this for you… Probably you have but why do we make some of these mistakes? Well it’s very very very simple so please read this and stay with the Box!

Let’s speak about something that is called INTERFERENCE and what the hell is interference? Interference is nothing but your first language interfering with the language you’re learning, in this case, if you are a Spanish speaker and Spanish is your first language, Spanish structures, Spanish pronunciation, Spanish vocabulary is interfering with English and that’s why people say things like “No is good” because in Spanish it’s natural to say “No está bien” so in English is “No is good” Right? But no! We know that in English is “It’s not good” and like this there are many many mistakes, but well, having said that, let’s begin spotting them. You’re going to see how often people make these mistakes.

I am agree

Yeah, I know it sounds ridiculous. I know it sounds like “Come on, this is too obvious!” Well, believe me this mistake happens and it happens a lot. Remember in English agree is neither a noun nor an adjective but a verb so you are not supposed to say things like “I’m agree”. In Spanish it’s very typical to say “Estoy de acuerdo” and it sounds dramatically similar to say “I am agree” but no, because “agree” is not an adjective, so in this case what’s the correct form? “I agree” Eliminate the verb to be from your structure.

And what happens if the sentence is negative? Should we use the verb BE? No, we never use the verb BE. Remember that, so the negative form of “I agree” is “I DON’T agree” Well so now let’s move to the next mistake of our list. Are you ready?

Stop overusing how

Yeah, although you don’t believe it, people overuse the word HOW and then again, yes, because of interference! That’s it! Usually the mistakes that I we are spotting right now happen with Spanish speakers learning English. Now let me tell you a very simple example:

“I think Eiza González speaks HOW a native”

Wait! She speaks HOW a native? Are you sure that’s correct? Well, obviously not! In this case although in Spanish it’s pretty natural to say Eiza González speaks HOW a native, in English that doesn’t work. In this case remember you are not supposed to use the word HOW, You are going to use the word LIKE because this word, besides being a verb is also a preposition and it’s a preposition that means SIMILAR TO. So remember every time you’re comparing two objects, two nouns in the way they do something you have to use LIKE and the pattern is quite simple;

verb + like + your noun

So in this case Eiza Gonzalez doesn’t speak HOW a native, she speaks LIKE a native. “Hmm, it smells like hamburgers!” and the same happens with the following questions, questions that in Spanish are commonly used with the equivalent of how in Spanish which is Cómo, but not in English, a very simple example of this is “Hey, how do you call this thing?” If you don’t want anyone to answer back something like “I don’t know, if you want to call that thing you can use your phone or you can text it or you can send an email” probably you’re just going to be like “What the heck?” and that’s for a very simple reason, you are asking for the way, the method, the means you can use in order to give this thing a call. The correct word if you want to know the name of this thing is WHAT, “What do you call this?” Then the other person will reply something like “Oh, a cutter” Exactly, that’s what I meant; a cutter. You see? And the same happens with questions like “How does she look like?” It should be “What does she look like?” And actually it comes connected with the thing that I told you before about like. “What does he?/ What does she look like?“And another example of this is when you are asking for some word that you don’t know and you say “Hey, how’s the word for this?” Is that correct?” In that case you should also use “Hey, what’s the word for this?” “Oh, that’s a cutter”.

I have 30 years old

This is one of the most typical mistakes, this is one of the things that you learn practically from the very beginning; this is basic English. Nevertheless, it’s a very common mistake with accomplished Learners as well. Not only with beginners, not only with intermediate students but with accomplished ones. In Spanish is like typical and actually is normal because literally the question in Spanish is “How many years do you have?” And then you answer how many years you have. In English people don’t ask you how many years you have, that’s why you’re not supposed to say “I have 20” “I have 30” “I have 40” and of course even a worse mistake is to say “I have 40 years old” “I have 50 years old” “I have 60, 70…” And this doesn’t apply to the age of people, this applies practically to the age of everything. If we’re speaking about a movie, the same thing. I don’t say “Hey, how many years does that movie have?” No, I say the same “How old is that movie?” “The other day I was watching Back to the Future and I was wondering how old it is.” Same thing. Well, to help you remember this, next time you’re speaking about something’s or someone’s age, remember not to say the verb HAVE.

How + adjective + verb to be + noun

Fun or funny

People tend to believe that they manage properly the words fun and funny, but probably you are not managing them well and let me tell you why; people tend to believe that actually they are kind of the same thing but no, they are not. Sometimes you want to say things like “Hey, having a holiday in Cabo sounds like a FUNNY thing”  but that’s not really right. FUN can be an adjective, yes, but it can also be a noun and it has to do with ENTERTAINMENT there’s no comedy involved, in this case a holiday or vacation in Cabo sounds like a FUN thing, like an entertaining thing… and relaxing by the way. You can also use it in the expression “Let’s have some fun” Let’s have some entertainment, let’s have some relax. Now, speaking about FUNNY, it refers to something that actually provokes you to laugh, in this one comedy is involved. It refers to something hilarious, something comical. When you’re just scrolling on Tik Tok and watching funny videos, exactly! That’s it! You’re watching things that provoke you to laugh so those are funny also comedians comedians are supposed to be funny.

History vs story

 Just in the same fashion, we have HISTORY and STORY. The first thing you have to remember is history is an uncountable noun. What does this mean? It doesn’t have a plural form and you cannot use A or AN. You cannot say A history or you cannot say TWO histories… you cannot say THREE histories because it’s an uncountable word and it’s singular. And when do we use it? Well, history refers to the events that happened in the past of someone’s life or the life of a country, the life of a city, the life of a culture, etc. It refers to all this set of events that have happened through the passing of time and of course it also refers to the academic subject. Some people love it some people hate it. And what about story? Well, story on the other hand, works a little bit different. First of all, you must remember story is a countable noun, with this one you can use a plural form and you can say A story. Story is a narration of events that happened to you or someone imaginary or real at some point in time.

Interested or interesting

If you’re speaking about yourself, what do you think that matches better; I am bored or I am boring? Well, if your answer is that you are boring, well, I’m so sorry for you. If you’re saying you’re boring you’re assuming that that’s one of your characteristics; If you start talking, everybody falls asleep. Sorry but that’s what you’re saying. The correct answer should be I’m bored, I’m bored expresses a transitory feeling provoked in my case by an external agent so I feel bored, Did you catch the difference? The ING form represents a situation, a situation that can be created either by people or things in general while the ED adjectives are representing a feeling a reaction that was provoked by an external agent, ED adjectives only work with living things; My dog can be bored, I can be bored but… The movie can be bored? Not really, just follow this pattern:

ING = CAUSE

ED = EFFECT

Well, of course there are many more mistakes that English Learners make and are quite common but we’re going to leave those for a second part. But tell us, have you been making any of these mistakes or have you making any others you believe are commonly made by learners?

We’d love to read you! We urge you to illustrate your reading with our video on this issue.

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LET’S PRACTICE PRONOUNS!

QUIZZ TIME!

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Choose the correct option in order to complete the sentences accurately.

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS WHEN YOU FINISH.

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